ugc net commerce syllabus

Subject: Commerce

Code No. : 08

  • Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business

  • Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing

  • Unit 3: Business Economics

  • Unit 4: Business Finance

  • Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods

  • Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management

  • Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions

  • Unit 8: Marketing Management

  • Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business

  • Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning

Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business
  • Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environmentRole of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

  • Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business

  • Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy

  • Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s FDI policy

  • Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP

  • Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA

  • International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD

  • World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS

Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing
  • Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates

  • Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Insolvency of partnership firms

  • Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation and reconstruction of companies

  • Holding company accounts

  • Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing and JIT

  • Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis

  • Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting

  • Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS

  • Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit

  • Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit

Unit 3: Business Economics
  • Meaning and scope of business economics

  • Objectives of business firms

  • Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR

  • Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis

  • Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale

  • Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves

  • Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination

  • Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak load pricing

Unit 4: Business Finance
  • Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing

  • Cost of capital and time value of money

  • Capital structure

  • Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis

  • Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and policies

  • Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization

  • International monetary system

  • Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques

  • International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs

  • International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting

Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods
  • Measures of central tendency

  • Measures of dispersion

  • Measures of skewness

  • Correlation and regression of two variables

  • Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes’ theorem

  • Probability distributions: Binomial, poisson and normal distributions

  • Research: Concept and types; Research designs

  • Data: Collection and classification of data

  • Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling - probability and nonprobability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error; Statistical estimation

  • Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi–square test; Mann-Whitney test (Utest); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test

  • Report writing

Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management
  • Principles and functions of management

  • Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control

  • Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization

  • Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories

  • Corporate governance and business ethics

  • Human resource management: Concept, role and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning

  • Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits

  • Performance appraisal including 360 degree performance appraisal

  • Collective bargaining and workers’ participation in management

  • Personality: Perception; Attitudes; Emotions; Group dynamics; Power and politics; Conflict and negotiation; Stress management

  • Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change

Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions
  • Overview of Indian financial system

  • Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks; Cooperative banks

  • Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management

  • Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management

  • Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market

  • Financial Institutions: Development Finance Institutions (DFIs); Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs); Mutual Funds; Pension Funds

  • Financial Regulators in India

  • Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion

  • Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems

  • Insurance: Types of insurance- Life and Non-life insurance; Risk classification and management; Factors limiting the insurability of risk; Re-insurance; Regulatory framework of insurance- IRDA and its role

Unit 8: Marketing Management
  • Marketing: Concept and approaches; Marketing channels; Marketing mix; Strategic marketing planning; Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

  • Product decisions: Concept; Product line; Product mix decisions; Product life cycle; New product development

  • Pricing decisions: Factors affecting price determination; Pricing policies and strategies

  • Promotion decisions: Role of promotion in marketing; Promotion methods - Advertising; Personal selling; Publicity; Sales promotion tools and techniques; Promotion mix

  • Distribution decisions: Channels of distribution; Channel management

  • Consumer Behaviour; Consumer buying process; factors influencing consumer buying decisions

  • Service marketing

  • Trends in marketing: Social marketing; Online marketing; Green marketing; Direct marketing; Rural marketing; CRM

  • Logistics management

Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business
  • Indian Contract Act, 1872: Elements of a valid contract; Capacity of parties; Free consent; Discharge of a contract; Breach of contract and remedies against breach; Quasi contracts;

  • Special contracts: Contracts of indemnity and guarantee; contracts of bailment and pledge; Contracts of agency

  • Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Sale and agreement to sell; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Rights of unpaid seller and rights of buyer

  • Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881: Types of negotiable instruments; Negotiation and assignment; Dishonour and discharge of negotiable instruments

  • The Companies Act, 2013: Nature and kinds of companies; Company formation; Management, meetings and winding up of a joint stock company

  • Limited Liability Partnership: Structure and procedure of formation of LLP in India

  • The Competition Act, 2002: Objectives and main provisions

  • The Information Technology Act, 2000: Objectives and main provisions; Cyber crimes and penalties

  • The RTI Act, 2005: Objectives and main provisions

  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) : Patents, trademarks and copyrights; Emerging issues in intellectual property

  • Goods and Services Tax (GST): Objectives and main provisions; Benefits of GST; Implementation mechanism; Working of dual GST

Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning
  • Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes

  • International Taxation: Double taxation and its avoidance mechanism; Transfer pricing

  • Corporate Tax Planning: Concepts and significance of corporate tax planning; Tax avoidance versus tax evasion; Techniques of corporate tax planning; Tax considerations in specific business situations: Make or buy decisions; Own or lease an asset; Retain; Renewal or replacement of asset; Shut down or continue operations

  • Deduction and collection of tax at source; Advance payment of tax; E-filing of income-tax returns

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